There are several studies by the Arab League, UNESCO and the World Bank stated that the Middle East and the Arab world will be contributing for about one-third of the brain drain from developing countries. There are 50% of doctors, 23% of engineers and 15% from other faculties. Arab countries migrate to Europe, Australia, Canada, and other countries. The phenomenon of the migration of Arab minds began in the nineteenth century and increased in the 20th century, especially after the end of World War 2. It was also reported that 54% of the Arab students studying abroad do not return to their country. The Arabs alone constitute 34% In Britain. About 100,000 scientists, engineers, and doctors each year come from eight Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria.
The Arab world and the Middle East and North Africa in particular suffer from the migration of scientific competencies for many reasons, including the living side, and the lack of scientific research fields for the holders of certificates and competencies, which lead to high rates of unemployment and the tendency of young people to seek alternatives abroad. pointed out that the migration of minds and competencies comes from the lack of material return, political and social instability, the inability of the society to absorb creative energy, and the lack of a number of jobs in many disciplines. If the situation remains the same, it will lead to more migration in the years coming.
As for the types of immigration programs, the conditions of each country differ from each other in terms of benefits, privileges, and its pointing system and employment opportunities available in each country. Canada, for example, has a Skilled Immigration Program, a program designed to encourage experienced people to migrate and work in Canada. The Skill Emigration Program uses Canada’s Points system, which determines the applicant’s eligibility to immigrate to Canada. These include age, Language) and other important factors such as having first-class relatives, adaptability and getting a job offer.
One of the best ways to migrate to Canada is the Express Entry system of local governments in each county. This system provides the speed to apply for immigration to Canada after obtaining a job offer, processing the immigration application takes only six months; the program allows qualified workers to apply for permanent residence. Applicants who receive the highest scores are selected on a regular basis and also according to a specific number to be announced by the Canadian Immigration and Citizenship Service.
There are several conditions that must be followed before progress as the applicant must be 18 years of age or older and must have at least 67 points and meet the required security and health standards.
As for Australia’s migration program to Australia, it allows professionals who are looking to migrate to Australia and work there, especially in sectors facing a shortage of expertise. The immigration program in Australia has a migration of visa qualification skills. The applicant must choose the profession from the list of professions issued For the Ministry of Internal Affairs – Border Protection and Immigration Department then the applicant must meet the basic requirements of the Australia Skilled Migration Program.
The program works according to the points system. The points are calculated to determine the eligibility of the applicant to immigrate to Australia, and it is calculated by giving the applicant points against (age, professional experience, education, and language). The applicant must achieve 65 points to qualify for immigration to Australia. Then choose the applicants who get the highest grades and grant them the right to immigrate to Australia and can also include their spouses and children.